Commonwealth Consolidated Regulations

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Emergency exits

             (1)  The registered operator of a helicopter to which this Subpart applies commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the registered operator:

                              (i)  operates the helicopter; or

                             (ii)  permits a person to operate the helicopter; and

                     (b)  a requirement in this regulation is not met while the helicopter is operating.

Penalty:  50 penalty units.

             (2)  Each emergency exit must be marked so that its location can be seen from a distance equal to the width of the cabin.

             (3)  There must be a sign on or near each exit that:

                     (a)  shows the location of the exit handle; and

                     (b)  gives the operating instructions for the handle; and

                     (c)  can be read by a person attempting to open the exit.

             (4)  The light for each emergency exit sign must:

                     (a)  operate independently of the helicopter's main lighting system; and

                     (b)  be able to be switched on manually; and

                     (c)  remain illuminated when the helicopter makes an emergency landing, regardless of whether the light switches on automatically or must be switched on manually.

             (5)  The outside of the fuselage must be marked to show:

                     (a)  each emergency exit; and

                     (b)  if an exit can be opened from outside--the means by which it can be opened.

             (6)  An offence against subregulation (1) is an offence of strict liability.


Table of contents

Subpart 91.A--Preliminary

91.005       Application of Part 91--Australian aircraft in Australian territory

91.010       Application of Part 91--Australian aircraft in foreign countries

91.015       Application of Part 91--Australian aircraft over the high seas

91.020       Application of Part 91--foreign registered aircraft

91.025       Application of Part 91--foreign state aircraft

91.030       Application of Part 91--aircraft to which Part 101, 103 or 131 applies

91.035       Application of Part 91--certain provisions of this Part do not apply if provisions of Part 105, 121, 133, 135 or 138 apply

91.040       Issue of Manual of Standards for Part 91

91.045       Approvals by CASA for Part 91

91.050       Approvals by authorised persons for Subpart 91.T

Subpart 91.C--General

Division 91.C.1--General flight limitations

91.055       Aircraft not to be operated in manner that creates a hazard

91.060       Unauthorised travel or placing of cargo on aircraft

91.085       NVIS flights

91.090       All flights--airspeed limits

Division 91.C.2--Operational documents

91.095       Compliance with flight manual etc.

Division 91.C.3--Flight related documents

91.100       Electronic documents

91.105       Carriage of documents

91.110       Carriage of documents for certain flights

91.115       Carriage of documents--flights that begin or end outside Australian territory

91.120       Journey logs--flights that begin or end outside Australian territory

Division 91.C.4--Reporting and recording defects and incidents etc.

Division 91.C.5--Search and rescue services and emergency and survival equipment

Division 91.C.6--Miscellaneous requirements for aircraft

91.140       Operating an Australian aircraft outside Australia

91.145       Requirements to be met before Australian aircraft may fly

91.150       Operating aircraft with inoperative equipment--placarding

91.155       Manipulating flight controls

Division 91.C.7--Firearms on aircraft

91.160       Possessing firearm on aircraft

91.165       Discharging firearm on aircraft

Division 91.C.8--Portable electronic devices

91.170       Operation of portable electronic devices

91.175       Operation of portable electronic devices by crew members

Division 91.C.9--Special flight operations

91.180       Air displays in Australian territory

91.185       Conducting aerobatic manoeuvres

91.190       Dropping things from aircraft

91.195       Picking up or setting down people or things during flight

91.200       Persons not to be carried in certain parts of aircraft

91.205       Flying in formation

91.210       Towing of things by aircraft

Subpart 91.D--Operational procedures

Division 91.D.1--Operational control

91.215       Authority and responsibilities of pilot in command

91.220       Actions and directions by operator or pilot in command

91.225       Crew members--power of arrest

Division 91.D.2--Flight preparation

91.230       Flight preparation (weather assessments) requirements

91.235       Flight preparation (alternate aerodromes) requirements

Division 91.D.3--Flight notifications and pre-flight checks

91.240       Flight notifications

91.245       Matters to be checked before take-off

Division 91.D.4--Flight rules

Subdivision 91.D.4.1--General

91.255       Air traffic services--prescribed requirements

91.257       Air traffic control clearances and instructions

91.260       Unauthorised entry into prohibited or restricted areas

91.263       Air defence identification zone flights

91.265       Minimum height rules--populous areas and public gatherings

91.267       Minimum height rules--other areas

91.270       Aircraft to be flown under VFR or IFR

Subdivision 91.D.4.2--Visual flight rules

91.273       VFR flights

91.275       Specified VFR cruising levels

91.277       Minimum heights--VFR flights at night

91.280       VFR flights--compliance with VMC criteria

91.283       VFR flights--aircraft not to exceed certain speeds

91.285       VFR flights--flights in class A airspace

Subdivision 91.D.4.3--Instrument flight rules

91.287       IFR flights

91.290       Specified IFR cruising levels

91.295       IFR flights at non-specified cruising levels--notifying Air Traffic Services

91.300       IFR flights at non-specified cruising levels--avoiding collisions with aircraft conducting VFR flights

91.305       Minimum heights--IFR flights

91.307        IFR take - off and landing minima

91.310       Approach ban for IFR flights

91.315       Taking off and landing in low visibility

91.320       Specified aircraft performance categories

Subdivision 91.D.4.4--Avoiding collisions in the air

91.325       Basic rule

91.330       Right of way rules

91.335       Additional right of way rules

91.340       Right of way rules for take-off and landing

Subdivision 91.D.4.5--Avoiding collisions on water

91.345       Compliance with International Regulations

91.350       Giving way to vessels

91.355       Giving way on water

Subdivision 91.D.4.6--Avoiding collisions at or in the vicinity of aerodromes

91.360       Meaning of in the vicinity of a non-controlled aerodrome

91.365       Taxiing or towing on movement area of aerodrome

91.370       Take-off or landing at non-controlled aerodrome--all aircraft

91.375       Operating on manoeuvring area, or in the vicinity, of non-controlled aerodrome--general requirements

91.380       Operating on manoeuvring area, or in the vicinity, of non-controlled aerodrome--landing and taking off into the wind

91.385       Operating on manoeuvring area, or in the vicinity, of non-controlled aerodrome--requirements that apply after joining the circuit pattern

91.390       Operating on manoeuvring area, or in the vicinity, of non-controlled aerodrome--requirements related to maintaining the same track after take-off

91.395       Straight-in approaches at non-controlled aerodromes

91.400       Communicating at certified, registered, military or designated non-controlled aerodromes

91.405       Aircraft in aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes

Division 91.D.5--Taking off, landing and ground operations

91.410       Use of aerodromes

91.415       Taxiing aircraft

91.420       Parked aircraft not to create hazard

91.425       Safety when aeroplane operating on ground

91.430       Safety when rotorcraft operating on ground

Division 91.D.6--Fuel requirements

91.455       Fuel requirements

91.460       Oil requirements

91.465       Contaminated, degraded or inappropriate fuels

91.470       Fire hazards

91.475       Fuelling aircraft--fire fighting equipment

91.480       Fuelling aircraft--electrical bonding

91.485       Equipment or electronic devices operating near aircraft

91.490       Fuelling turbine-engine aircraft--low-risk electronic devices

91.495       Only turbine-engine aircraft to be hot fuelled

91.500       Hot fuelling aircraft--general

91.505       Hot fuelling aircraft--procedures etc.

91.510       Fuelling aircraft--persons on aircraft, boarding or disembarking

91.515       Fuelling aircraft if fuel vapour detected

Division 91.D.7--Safety of persons on aircraft and cargo requirements

91.520       Crew members to be fit for duty

91.525       Offensive or disorderly behaviour on aircraft

91.530       When smoking not permitted

91.535       Crew safety during turbulence

91.540       Means of passenger communication

91.545       Seating for persons on aircraft

91.550       Seating for flight crew members

91.555       Seating for crew members other than flight crew members

91.560       Restraint of infants and children

91.565       Passengers--safety briefings and instructions

91.570       Passengers--safety directions by pilot in command

91.575       Passengers--compliance with safety directions

91.580       Passengers--compliance with safety instructions by cabin crew

91.585       Restraint and stowage of cargo

91.590       Restraint and stowage of carry-on baggage

91.595       Restraint and stowage of certain aircraft equipment

91.600       Carriage of cargo--general

91.605       Carriage of cargo--cargo compartments

91.610       Carriage of cargo--unoccupied seats

91.615       Carriage of cargo--loading instructions

91.620       Carriage of animals

Division 91.D.8--Instruments, indicators, equipment and systems

91.625       Use of radio--qualifications

91.630       Use of radio--broadcasts and reports

91.635       Communication monitoring in controlled airspaces

91.640       Use of radio outside controlled airspaces--listening watch of radio transmissions

91.645       Availability of instructions for flight data and combination recorders

91.650       Flight recorders--preserving recordings of immediately reportable matters

91.655       RVSM airspace

91.660       Performance-based navigation

Division 91.D.9--Miscellaneous

Division 91.D.10--Signals, emergencies and hazards

91.670       Standard visual signals

91.675       Pilot in command to report hazards to air navigation

91.680       Pilot in command to report emergencies

91.685       Multi-engine aircraft--pilot in command to land at nearest suitable aerodrome if emergency occurs

91.690       Pilot in command to report contraventions relating to emergencies

91.695       Interception of aircraft

91.700       Aviation distress signals

91.705       Flight in icing conditions--adherence of frost, ice or snow

91.710       Flight in icing conditions--requirements for flight

Division 91.D.11--Causing or simulating failures etc.

Subdivision 91.D.11.1--Causing or simulating instrument failure etc.

91.715       Causing or simulating failure of flight instruments

91.720       Simulating IMC flying

91.725       Training flight limitations etc.

Subdivision 91.D.11.2--Causing or simulating engine failure etc. for aeroplanes

91.730       Aeroplane flights in IMC or at night--engine not to be shut down

91.735       Single-engine aeroplane--VFR flights by day--engine not to be shut down

91.740       Single-engine aeroplane--simulating engine failure in IMC or at night

91.745       Multi-engine aeroplane--simulating engine failure--general

91.750       Multi-engine aeroplane--simulating engine failures in IMC or at night

Subdivision 91.D.11.3--Causing or simulating engine failure etc. for rotorcraft

91.755       Single-engine rotorcraft -- engine not to be shut down

91.760       Single-engine rotorcraft -- engine failure not to be simulated and autorotation of main rotor system not to be initiated in IMC

91.765       Single-engine rotorcraft -- simulating engine failure or initiating autorotation of main rotor system at night

91.770       Multi-engine rotorcraft--engine not to be shut down at certain altitudes in IMC or at night

91.775       Multi-engine rotorcraft--simulating engine failure in IMC or at night

Division 91.D.12--Psychoactive substances

91.780       Passengers--alcohol

91.785       Crew--provision of alcohol

91.790       Prohibiting person affected by psychoactive substances from boarding

Subpart 91.F--Performance

91.795       Take-off performance

91.800       Landing performance

Subpart 91.J--Weight and balance

91.805       Loading of aircraft

Subpart 91.K--Equipment

91.810       Requirements relating to equipment

Subpart 91.P--Cabin crew

91.820       Cabin crew--when required

91.825       Cabin crew--number

91.830       Cabin crew--knowledge of emergency and safety equipment and procedures

Subpart 91.T--Operations under certain special certificates of airworthiness and special flight permits

Division 91.T.1--Preliminary

91.835       Aircraft with more than one certificate of airworthiness--application of Subpart 91.T

Division 91.T.2--Restricted category aircraft--operating requirements

91.840       Restricted category aircraft--general operating requirements

91.845       Restricted category aircraft--kinds of operations permitted

Division 91.T.3--Provisionally certificated aircraft--operating requirements

91.850       Provisionally certificated aircraft--operating requirements

91.855       Provisionally certificated aircraft--kinds of operations permitted

91.860       Provisionally certificated aircraft--operation for type certification or supplemental type certification

91.865       Provisionally certificated aircraft--requirements for the carriage of people

91.870       Provisionally certificated aircraft--additional requirements for operators

Division 91.T.4--Experimental aircraft--operating requirements

91.875       Experimental aircraft--operating requirements

91.880       Experimental aircraft--kinds of operations permitted

91.885       Experimental aircraft--maximum number of persons to be carried

Division 91.T.5--Primary category aircraft and intermediate category aircraft--operating requirements

91.890       Primary category aircraft and intermediate category aircraft--operating requirements

Division 91.T.6--Light sport aircraft--operating requirements

91.895       Light sport aircraft--operators

91.900       Light sport aircraft--pilots

Division 91.T.7--Special flight permits--operating requirements

91.905       Flights under special flight permits

Division 91.T.8--Miscellaneous

91.910       Application of Division 91.T.8

91.915       Aircraft with special certificates of airworthiness--maintenance release etc.

91.920       Aircraft with special certificates of airworthiness--flight tests to be conducted in certain areas

Subpart 91.Y--Minimum equipment lists

Division 91.Y.1--Preliminary

91.925       Definitions

91.930       Requirements for minimum equipment lists

Division 91.Y.2--Approval of minimum equipment lists

91.935       Approval of minimum equipment lists

Division 91.Y.3--Variations of minimum equipment lists

91.940       Approval of variations

Division 91.Y.4--Extensions of rectification intervals

91.945       Approval of extensions of rectification intervals

91.950       Effect of approval

91.955       CASA to be notified of extensions approved by a continuing airworthiness management organisation

Division 91.Y.5--Other

91.960       Operation of aircraft with multiple inoperative items not permitted in certain circumstances

Subpart 91.Z--Foreign aircraft

91.965       Foreign registered aircraft--Chicago Convention

91.970       Foreign registered aircraft--special flight authorisations

91.975       Foreign state aircraft--approval to fly in Australian territory

91.980       Foreign registered aircraft--major defect--CASA direction

91.985       Foreign registered aircraft--CASA to notify Contracting State of direction

91.990       Foreign registered aircraft--CASA may revoke direction

91.995       Foreign registered aircraft--when direction or revocation takes effect

Subpart 91.A -- Preliminary


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